Explaining where an item is/isn’t

To describe what is in your room use the following grammar pattern:

(PLACE ) OBJECTが あります。

Example 1.

Q: どこに ベットが あります
A:  へやに ベッドが あります。

The emphasis of the sentence is on the location of the bed.


Example 2.

Q2: ベット どこに あります
A2:  ベッド へやに あります。

The emphasis is on the bed, but the meaning of the sentence remains the same.

To describe what is not in your room use the following grammar pattern:


(PLACE ) OBJECTが ありません


Q:  しんしつに テレビが あります
A:  しんしつに テレビは ありません。
でも、ベッドは あります。
テレビは いまに あります。

Requesting a favour politely (~が)

There are 2 purposes of using the structure.


In Japanese, expressing your wish directly is avoided as much as possible.
Less direct expressions such as 〜たいですが… (I’d like to … but…) or
〜たいとおもいますが… (I think I’d like to … but …) are used.
In a shop or when asking directions, this expression is often used without the sentence being completed.




b) とけいを買いたかったんですが、お金がありません。

〜が at the end of the first sentence means ‘but’, and it connects the two sentences.

You may also use けど・けれど・けれども for ’but’.






A) Guess the appropriate requests that may come after ‘but…’ in the following sentences, then translate them using 〜が or 〜けど.

  1. I’m a little cold, but…
  2. My throat is hurting, but…
  3. Excuse me, teacher. I don’t feel well, but…
  4. I want some water, but…
  5. I want to buy a Japanese souvenir, but…
  6. Mum, I want to go to Mie’s house on Saturday, but…

B) Translate these sentences usingが, けど, けれど orけれども

  1. I want to play games, but I have a Japanese test tomorrow.
  1. I want to eat some cake, but I will become fat.
  2. I want to go to a Taku’s birthday party, but I have tennis training on Sunday.
  3. I wanted to study for the Japanese test, but I was sick.
  4. I wanted to go to Japan, but my parents are strict.
  5. I do not want to wake up, but my mum will get angry (おこります).
  1. I did not want to eat natto, but there was no other (ほか) food in the fridge.

Saying what you want to do (action)

As we have introduced in the previous section, 〜がほしい indicates that you want an object; while 〜が+Verb Stem +たい indicates that you want to do something (action)

To make the 〜たい form, simply drop ます and add たい


行きます → 行きたい (I want to go)

食べます → 食べたい (I want to eat)

ます → たい (I want to see)

〜たい inflects in the same way as い adjectives

Present & Future Past
Plain 〜たい 〜たかった
Plan polite 〜たいです 〜たかったです
Plain negative 〜たくない 〜たくなかった
Plain negative polite 〜たないです





The subject of 〜たいです is always ‘I’ or ‘We’, while the subject of 〜たいですか is always ‘you’. Therefore the subject is often omitted.

PARTICLE: Note that in a 〜たい sentence the thing you want is marked by either が or を

Example Sentences:






A) Change the following verbs into たい form. 

  • Buy – 買います – 買いたい
  • See
  • Read
  • Write
  • Go
  • Speak
  • Do

B) Translate these sentences.

  1. I wanted to buy a new car.
  2. I do not want to see the romance movie.
  3. I want to read the Japanese newspaper.
  4. I want to write in Chinese.
  5. Do you want to buy a cute doll?
  6. I want to give (あげる)my mother a flower.
  7. Do you want to go to Japan next year?
  8. I want to speak in Japanese well.
  9. I didn’t want to play soccer today.
  10. I wanted to learn(まなぶ) Spanish.



  • Buy → 買います → 買いたい
  • See → 見ます → 見たい
  • Read → よみます → よみたい
  • Write → かきます → かきたい
  • Go → 行きます → 行きたい
  • Speak → はなします → はなしたい
  • Do → します → したい


  1. あたらしいくるまが買いたかったです。
  2. ロマンスの・ロマンチックなえいがを見たくない(です)。
  3. 日本ごのしんぶんをよみたいです。
  4. 中国ごで・をかきたい(です)。
  5. かわいいにんぎょうが買いたいですか。
  6. 母にはなをあげたいです。
  7. 来年、日本に行きたいですか。
  8. 日本ごをじょうずにはなしたいです。
  9. 今日、サッカーをしたくなかったです。
  10. スペインごをまなびたかったです。


Saying that you want an object

ほしい is an い adjective and means ‘desirable’.

It is translated as ‘want’ in English. ほしい inflects in the same way as an い adjective.

Present Future Past
Plain ほしい ほしかった
Plain polite ほしいです ほしかったです
Plain negative ほしくない ほしくなかった
Plain negative polite ほしくないです

ほしい indicates that the speaker wants something.

In full, the original sentence is 私はゆかたがほしいです, but 私は is usually omitted.

〜んです is the colloquial speech for 〜のです.

おなかがいたいのです。→ おなかがいたいんです。

It is used when the speaker is explaining or asking for an explanation.

In the example sentence,ゆかたがほしいです, the speaker is explaining the reason she is at the counter/shop. It sounds a little blunt and unnatural without it. In informal speech, んだ is usually associated masculinity and の with femininity.

Male: くつがほしいんだ。

Female: かばんがほしいの。